美国文化经典美文双语

2020-10-26 05:03:26 关键词: 美国 双语 美文 阅读:

  美国文化经典美文:美国选举

  Suprises often come in boxes. Birthday presents wrapped in colorful paper, brown paper packages mailed from a friend. No matter what kind of box it is, people like to open it up and see whats inside. In America, and in many other countries, one special kind of box contains the future. Its called a ballot box. What people put into the box on election day can change the course oflustory

  惊奇常常是在箱子里出现:包在彩色包装纸里面的生日礼物朋友寄来牛皮纸包的包裹不论是怎样的箱子,人们喜欢打开来看看里面是什么。在美国以及其他许多国家,有一个特殊的箱子关系着一个国家的未来,它被称为投票箱。人们在选举日投在箱子里的东西可以改变历史的走向。

  Elections are the lifeblood of a democracy. The word democracy literally means the people rule, an important concept in Americas history. In the mid-1700s, England began passing laws that made the American colorues angry. The colonists had to pay more and more taxes and enjoyed less and less freedom. They felt the govemment of England didnt represent their interests. On July 4, 1776, the colonies declared their independence from England. They wanted to establish a democracy where people could have a voice in government.

  选举是民主的原动力。民主这个字照字面的意思是人民自主竹,是美国历史中一个重要的观念0 18世纪中期,英国开始通过一些使美国殖民地愤怒的法律。殖民地人民必须交付愈来愈多的税,而享有愈来愈少的自由。他们感到英国政府没有代表他们的权益1776年月4日,殖民地宣布从英国独立出去。他们想要建立民主制度,使人们在政府中有发言权。

  An effective democracy holds regular elections. In Amcrica, elections are held every two years for members of Congress. In these elections, all seats in the House of Representatives and one-third of the Senate seats are up for grabs. In addition, every four years, voters go to the poUs to elect the nations president and vice-president. Voters also regularly cast their ballots for state and city government leaders and local school board members. Sometimes they also have to vote on a proposed law.

  有效的民主制度定期举行选举。在美国,每两年选一次国会议员。在这些选举中,人们可以争取所有众议院的席位和1/3的参议院席位。除此以外,选民每4年要去投票选出国家的总统和副总统。选民也定期投票选出州长、市长及当地学校的董事会成员。有时,他们也必须投票决定提议的法律。

  In the American electoral system, people dont really vote for presidential c:indldates. Instead, voters cast their ballots for electorswho support each candidate. Each state has as many electors as the total number of its representatives in Congress. This equals two senators per state plus the number ofits representatives in the House (which is based on the states population). The candidate who has the most votes in a state wins all of the states electors.To win the presidentrial election, a candidate must Sain at least 270 0f the 538 total electoral votes.

  在美国的选举制度中,人们并不直接投票给总统候选人,而是由选民给支持各个候选人的选举投票。每一州的选举人人数和代表此州的国会议员人数相同,等于每一州的两位参议员加上众议院的众议员人数(以各州的人口为基准)。在一个州里拥有最多票数的候选人就赢得了那一州所有选举人的票数。要赢得总统大选,候选人必须至少获得总共538个选举人中的270张票。

  Over the years, the U.S. has made a number of election reforms.Some early reforms outlawed cheating, giving bribes and threatening voters. They also limited the amount of money candidates could receive from donors and spend on theircampaigns. In 1870, black people gained the right to vote, and in 1920, that right was extended to women. In recent decades, laws against unfair rules for voting have been passed.No longer do people have to pay a special tax or pass a test in order to vote.In 1971, the voting age was lowered t0 18. Other reforms made votmg easier for the blind, the disabled and people who couldnt read. In some areas, ballots had to be printed in languages besides English.

  多年来,美国在选举方面做了一些改革。早期有些改革禁止作弊、收受贿赂或威胁选民。他们也限制候选人从捐赠者那儿获得的金额数目及花在竞选宣传上的费用.1870年,黑人获得选举权0 1920年,选举权利延伸至妇女那里.近几十年来,通过了一些反对不公平选举规则的法律. 人们不再需要付特殊的税或通过测验才能选举。1971年,投票的年龄降至18岁。其他的改革减轻了盲人、残障者及文盲投票的困难。在某些地区,选票上面除了英文以外,还必须印上别的文字。

  In November, Americans will again elect those who will represent them in government.Although some citizens arent even registered to vote-and some registered voters dont bother to go to the polls-most Americans exercise their right to vote. They realize that their future is wrapped up in a special package-the ballot box. Its a package that must definitely be handled with care.

  1 1月5日,美国人要再一次选出在政府中代表他们的人,虽然有些市民甚至不是法定投票人有些法定投票人懒得去投票但是大多数的美国人都会行使他们投票的权利。他们了解他们的未来包在一个特别的箱子里投票箱。它的确是一个必须小心处理的箱子。

  美国文化经典美文:美国的待客之道

  An American friend has invited you to visit his family. Youve never been to an Americans home before, and youre not sure what to do.Should you take a gift How should you dress What time should you arrive What should you do when you get there Glad you asked. When youre the guest, you should just make yourself at home. Thats what hospitality is all about: making people feel at home when theyre not.

  一位美国朋友邀请你去他家。你以前从未去过美国人的家,你不确定该怎么做。该带一个礼物吗该怎么穿该几点到到了那里该做什么很高兴你发问。你若是客人,只要使自己感到自在就好了.待客之道就是这样:虽然不是在家里,却使客人有宾至如归之感。

  The question of whether or not to bring a gift often makes guests squirm. Giving your host a gift is not just a social nicety in some cultures-its expected. But in American culture , a guest is not obligated to bring a present, Of course, some people do bring a small token of appreciation to their host. Appropriate gifts for general occasions might be flowers, candy or-if the family has small childrentoys. If you choose not to bring a gift, dont worry. No one will even notice.

  是否带礼物的问题常使客人不安。在某些文化中,送主人礼物不只是社交礼节还是必要的。但是在美国文化中,客人并不一定要带礼物。当然,有些人的确会带个表示感谢的小礼物给他们的主人.一般情况下,可以带花或是糖果.如果这家人有小孩,玩具应当是恰当的礼物。如果你选择不带礼物,不要担心,没有人会注意到的。

  American hospitality begins at home-especially when it involves food. Most Americans agree that good home cooking beats restaurant food any day. When invited for a meal, you might ask, Can I bring anythingUnless its. a potluck, where everyone brings a_dish, the host will probably respond, No,just yourself. For most informal dinners, you should wear comfortable, casual clothes. Plan to arrive on time, or else call to inform your hosts of the delay. During the dinner conversation:its customary to compliment the hostess on the wonderful meal. Of course, the biggest compliment is to eat lots of food!

  美国人的待客之道从家里开始尤其是和食物有关。大多数美国人都同意,无论如何,好的家常菜胜过餐馆的菜。受邀吃饭时,你或许问:我可以带些什么吗 除非是每人带道菜的聚餐,否则主人很可能会回答: 不用,你来就可以了. 大多数非正式的聚餐,你应该穿舒适、轻便的衣服。设法准时到,否则打电话告诉主人你会晚点到。用餐时,习惯上,人们会称赞女主人烹调的美食。当然,最大的赞美是多吃!

  When youve had plenty, you might offer to clear the table or wash the dishes. But since youre the guest, your hosts may not let you. Instead, they may invite everyone to move to the living room for dessert with tea or coffee. After an hour or so of general chitchat, its probably time to head for the door. You dont want to wear out your welcome. And above all,dont go snooping around the house. Its more polite to wait for the host to offer you a guided tour. But except for housewarmings, guests often dont get past the living room.

  当你吃得差不多时,或许可以主动表示要帮忙清理桌子或洗碗盘,但你既是客人,你的主人可能不会让你这样做。他们或许会邀请大家到客厅吃点心、喝茶或咖啡。聊个大约一小时或许就该离去了,你可不希望变得不受欢迎吧。还有最重要的是不要在屋子里四处窥探,等主人邀请你参观才较有礼貌。可是除了乔迁喜宴之外,客人通常都只待在客厅里。

  Americans usually like to have advance notice when people come to see them. Only very close friends drop by unannounced. This is especially true if the guests want to stay for a few days. Heres a good ruleof thumb for house guests: Short stays are best. As one 19th century French writer put it, The first day a man is a guest, the second a burden, the third a pest. Even relatives dont usually stay for several weeks at a time.While youre staying with an Amencan family, try to keep your living area neat and tidy. Your host family will appreciate your consideration.And they may even invite you back!

  美国人通常喜欢访客事先通知他们,只有非常亲密的朋友才可能不请自来,尤其在客人要待好几天时更是如此。最好不要久留这是给访客的经验之谈。就像19世纪一位法国作家所写的那样:第一天是客人,第二天是负担,第三天就是讨厌鬼了.既使是亲戚通常不会一次待上几个星期. 当你住在美国人家里时,设法使你住的地方保持整齐清洁。你的主人_家都会感谢你这么体贴,他们甚至会再邀请你!

  Most Americans consider themselves hospitable people. Folks in the southem United States, m particular, take pride in entertaining guests.In fact,southern hospitality has become legendary. But in all parts of America, people welcome their guests with open arms. So dont be surprised to find the welcome mat out for you. Just dont forget to wipe your feet.

  大多数美国人都认为他们是好客之人。尤其是美国的南方人更以款待客人自豪,事实上,南方的款待是人们所津津乐道、口口相传的。不过在美国各地,人们都张开双臂欢迎他们的客人,所以当你发现有WELCOME字样的鞋垫时,不要惊讶,只是别忘了把你的脚擦干净就是了.

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